With body dissatisfaction a top ranked issue in young Australians, is it any wonder that many develop body anxiety or even eating disorders?
Over 70% of females in Australia wish to be thinner, while the equivalent percentage of males want to be either thinner or bigger. In our society, a slender/toned body is often associated with being attractive and successful, often supported by images in the media, emphasis on “healthy weight,” and fat shaming talk.
Every time we look in the mirror and pick out the bits and pieces of ourselves we don’t like, damage is occurring to our self-esteem. Over time this dissatisfaction with the self erodes our confidence – not just in how we look, but how we feel other people perceive us. For some, this leads to relying on praise from others to inform them of their worth, and even developing anxiety symptoms.
The person suffering from body anxiety, may feel compelled to act in ways that are ultimately harmful to themselves.
The average person is often not completely satisfied with how they look. However in some people, body anxiety can lead to such consequences as self-starvation or self-induced vomiting, when they become fixated on changing their body shape. These practices usually don’t achieve the desired outcome and can result in feelings of disappointment, guilt, shame, and actually increase body dissatisfaction – and the risk of developing an eating disorder.
It is estimated that one in 20 Australians has an eating disorder. Myths of eating disorders describe them as a “lifestyle choice” which undermines the seriousness of the disorder, and the strength of the thoughts behind the dangerous relationship with food. Eating disorders are not a “cry for attention”. Eating disorders are often hidden and denied, and cannot be resolved without support and treatment.
- Anorexia Nervosa: Characterised by extreme weight loss through severe dietary restriction, can occur with purging behaviour such as vomiting, laxative use, or extreme exercise. Distorted body view, denial of seriousness of weight loss, self-evaluation in terms of appearance and intense fear of getting “fat.”
- Bulimia Nervosa: Seen with binge eating followed by purging behaviour to “get rid” of the food by vomiting, laxatives, enemas, medication, fasting or excessive exercise. A “binge” occurs when an individual eats a large amount of food in a short period of time and experiences a sense of lack of control over eating at the time.
- Binge Eating Disorder (BED): Characterised by binge eating behaviour without the purging behaviour following a binge.
- Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS): Used to describe eating issues which are clinically significant, but do not easily fit into a specified eating disorder.
Warning Signs & Symptoms of Eating Disorders
- Sudden changes in weight or weight loss;
- Cold sensitivity;
- Trouble concentrating;
- Feeling dizzy, faint and weak;
- Signs of vomiting, such as damage to teeth, bad breath, swelling around jaw and cheeks;
- Loss or disturbance in menstruation in women.
- Repetitive dieting, fasting, skipping meals, and avoiding certain food groups;
- Binge eating;
- Vomiting or laxative abuse;
- Excessive or compulsive exercising;
- Obsessive rituals around food preparation and eating;
- Avoidance of meals with other people;
- Giving excuses for missed meals or denying hunger;
- Eating slowly;
- Secretive behaviour around food, eg hiding food;
- Social withdrawal;
- Excessive or obsessive body checking behaviour;
- Clothing style change, eg wearing more baggy clothing.
- Preoccupation with food, weight and body shape;
- Distorted body image;
- Extreme body dissatisfaction;
- Using food as comfort or punishment;
- Feeling “out of control”;
- “Black and white” thinking patterns;
- Moodiness and irritability, particularly around food;
- Anxiety and/or depression;
- Anxiety around gaining weight;
- Heightened sensitivity to comments or criticism around weight, body shape, eating and exercise habits;
- Low self-esteem.
There are many adverse health effects from eating disorders, including malnutrition; kidney problems; Osteoporosis; muscle loss and weakness; headaches; constipation or diarrhoea; fainting; heart problems and risk of heart failure; peptic ulcers and pancreatitis; tooth decay; dehydration; and bowel disease.
If you or a loved one is struggling with body anxiety or perhaps even an eating disorder, it is essential to seek professional help as soon as possible. Don’t be discouraged if you are met with denial and anger, it is not personal but borne of feelings of anxiety and shame. Set limits, communicate with them as openly as you can, and provide them with support and encouragement to seek treatment.
Where weight loss has resulted in significant health complications, a stay in hospital may be required to treat malnutrition.
Treatment will aim to improve the individiual’s relationship with food and their image of self. A multi-disciplinary approach utilising psychological counselling, nutritional input and medical management is ideal.
Trust is key in working with obsessions with body shape, weight and food. Challenging the strong, obsessional thoughts involved in negative self-image requires comfort and confidence in the professionals involved.
Where possible, family intervention is crucial. After a good working relationship is established with all members, treatment will focus on a family centred approach whereby information is provided, healthy eating and exercise patterns established, and family relationships strengthened and supported.
If you are experiencing difficulties with body obsession and/or an eating disorder, please consider booking an appointment with me. For further information, here are some organisations providing support for people and families suffering with eating disorders:
- The National Eating Disorders Collaboration nedc.com.au
- Centre for Eating and Dieting Disorders cedd.org.au
- Butterfly Foundation thebutterflyfoundation.org.au
- The National Eating Disorders Association nationaleatingdisorders.org.
Author: Dr Rose Gillett, B Psych (Hons), D Psych (Clin), MAPS.
Rose Gillett is a clinical psychologist, working with children, adolescents, adults and couples. She is passionate about helping her clients achieve their goals, and has particular interest areas in attachment concerns in adults and young people, PTSD, and alcohol and drug addiction
To make an appointment with Clinical Psychologist Dr Rose Gillett, try Online Booking – Loganholme or call M1 Psychology (Loganholme) on (07) 3067 9129.
- Mission Australia. (2011).
- Ricciardelli, L. A., & McCabe, M. P. (2001). Children’s body image concerns and eating disturbance: A review of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 325-344.
- The National Eating Disorders Collaboration. (2014). 8 tips for dealing with an eating disorder. NSW: NEDC.